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What are Parts of Speech ?
All the words in English can be divided into 8, 9 or more groups according to their function in the language. These groups are traditionally called parts of speech and are today referred to as lexical categories or word classes. The following terms comprise the most basic grammar terminology every English user must be familiar with in order to understand how language works to create meaning.

Nouns (success), verbs (succeed), adjectives (successful), adverbs (successfully) and interjections (wow!) are sub-grouped into content words, namely, words that provide the concepts and ideas underlying the sentence. Content words are constantly being added to or removed from the language (an open word class), as changing usage patterns influence dynamic changes in a language’s vocabulary.

Conversely, Determiners (the), pronouns (we), prepositions (at) and conjunctions (and) are sub-grouped into structure words, whose number almost always stays constant in a language (closed word class). These are words that tie the content words together into a grammatically correct sentence and reflect the inner grammar rules of the language structure. These, as opposed to content words, change very slowly, if at all, throughout a language’s history.

It is vital for any English writer to be familiar with the parts of speech in order to have the terminology to study and analyze the language and identify mistakes in writing. Moreover, a word can function as a different part of speech depending on its role in the sentence structure (the terms of which are also vital for successful writing). This affects the word’s meaning and structure, making it important to confirm whether you are using the correct part of speech in the correct position in the sentence.
The defendant’s lawyers object to any claims made by the prosecution.
[ object is a verb, meaning to oppose]

They also showed an object found in the scene of the crime as exhibit A.
[ object is a noun, meaning a physical item]

Parts of Speech in the English Language
I. Content Words
1. The Noun
1. A Noun is a word that names a person ( teacher), thing ( pencil), animal ( cat), place (Paris) or abstract idea ( love). As practically anything in the universe has a name, and as there are many things in the universe, nouns comprise the largest group of words in English (about 65%). Nouns name common everyday objects such as pen, through to general conditions such as friendship, all the way to the most technical terminology for the tiniest part of a jet engine.